From a green standpoint the main thing to remember is that timber should be woodmarked and sourced as locally as possible, preferably in the UK.
Structural timber has the advantage over most other structural materials of being renewable and also a relatively good thermal insulation material.
Structural timber is usually of the following types
- normal softwood sections such as floor and ceiling joists as specified in the building regulationsThese are the mass of regulations that cover safety, health, welfare, convenience, energy efficiency etc. in the way buildings are constructed. Not to be confused with Planning consent (which is more to do with whether you can put up the building in the first place). See more on the regulations .
- larger sections of softwood or hardwood forming beams, trusses etc. and usually calculated by a structural engineer.
- laminated structural timber
- engineered timber such as I beamsprefabricated timber beams with a web of OSBOriented Strand Board and softwood flanges. They are very light, efficient and regular
- and occasionally – roundwood
The normal softwood sections are usually graded as C16 or C24 (respectively replacing SC3 and SC4) and this will be stated in the approved building regulation drawings. It is often available from UK plantations
Larger sections of softwood are also available from the UK and it is often possible to get them from local sawmills.
The larger hardwood sections may be more of a problem to source sustainably and in the case of tropical hardwoods, only the woodmark can be relied upon. (However it is seldom that tropical hardwoods are used structurally in housing). There is a considerable amount of timber produced sustainably in the UK which is not woodmarked mainly because it is produced in such small quantities that the certification procedure would not be warranted. E.g. there is a constant supply of hedgerow ash (although this is now threatened by Chalara) and to a lesser extent oak and other species which is not woodmarked but which gets replaced. There are also organisations such as Woodlots which may be of help in sourcing local timber.
(sometimes known as Glulam) is generally well sourced environmentally. However, due to the poor understanding of timber building culture in the UK it has been marketed mainly towards large structures such as offices, swimming pools, theaters etc rather than the housebuilding market, so it can be difficult to find merchants who are supplying off-the-peg structural members. The Glued Laminated Timber Association has a list of member companies. Also try Panel Agency Limited and Lamisell
Engineered timber such as Masonite beams represents a huge step forward in timber technology. Compared with traditional beams and joists Masonite sections are, for the same structural strength, much lighter, much more dimensionally regular and use considerably less timber. The dimensional stability with traditional beams and joists can be a major problem if they are not supplied at a moisture content of 12%, as shrinkage can cause considerable movement. It is not unusual to hear of 20mm movement over a two storey[for the purposes of part B (fire) of the Approved Documents to the Building Regulations] this includes - (a) any gallery[for the purposes of part B of the Approved Documents] - A raised area or platform around the sides or at the back of a room which provides extra space. if its area is more than half that of the space into which it projects; and (b) a roof, unless it is accessible only for maintenance and repair. timber structure in the first year . They also help with the insulation because the webs, being much thinner, cause minimal thermal bridgingthis is a pathway where heat can easily escape (or get in) through some part of the structure. It is usually caused by some element of structure such as a steel lintel or wooden studwork. Also known as a cold bridge. see more on thermal bridging. They do however run at about twice the price of solid timber sections with merchants such as Arnold Laver quoting around £4.80/m for 220 x 38 I beams. (supplied in 12m lengths).
Span tables for timber I beams are published by James Jones
Roundwood means using timber just as it comes off the tree. The point about roundwood is that it is extremely strong for its size and needs no lengthwise sawing. This is because the strength of timber is in its grain. Trees are naturally as strong as they can be to resist wind and gravity.
If you saw lengthways through a tree trunk (which is of course, not perfectly straight), you tend to cut slightly across the grain and reduce the strength. So the joy of roundwood is that you simply find a piece of timber and use it as it is without squaring it or sawing it lengthwise. This preserves its huge natural strength.
The drawbacks are that the timber may have a slightly odd shape and that many structural engineers in the UK don’t know how to calculate its strength. This may be a problem when the Building Inspector wants proof of its structural strength. It may also, for instance, be a problem in creating a flat level floor on roundwood joists or a flat level ceiling[for the purposes of part B of the Approved Documents] - A part of a building which encloses and is exposed overhead in a room, protected shaft or circulation space. (The soffit of a rooflight is included as part of the surface of the ceiling, but not the frame. An upstand below a rooflight would be considered as a wall.) on roundwood joists. When you look at traditional timber beams in old barns you often see a compromise between sawn timber and roundwood where large timber sections have been roughly sawn to give them a certain amount of squareness at the same time retaining most of the structural integrity of roundwood.
This image shows the roundwood reciprocal trusses being incorporated in some of the buildings at Lammas. This is an extremely strong way of forming a roof but at the same time it is a structural engineer’s nightmare because all the timber beams are slightly different and vary differently along their length. Why does this matter. Well the Building Regulations state not only how strong a roof (or floor or ceiling) needs to be but how much deflection (sagging) might occur. While a roof might easily pass the strength test, the deflection test is more difficult because it is based on a cube law. Engineers need to work with standardised dimensions, thicknesses, widths, timber properties etc. to prove things work.
There is of course the argument that this sort of stuff is all over-standardised and why not have things a bit out of square and maybe the odd collapse. Well – who knows?
Although the structural strength of timber sections is important, it is usually the stiffness which is the deciding factor when it comes to the Building Regulations. This is more to do with not getting cracks in your ceiling than the building actually collapsing. There tend to be three sources of information about the structural values of timber
- span tables for traditional joists, beams, purlins etc. These are referred to in Part AThe Approved documentsApproved documents (England) are detailed publications which come under the English Building Regulations. They are based on tried and tested methods of building and if you follow them you are assured of complying with the Regs. The equivalents for Scotland are the Technical HandbookUnder the Scottish Building Regulations, the Technical Handbook gives construction principles, which, if you follow them guarantee compliance with the Regulations, for Wales: the Approved documents (Wales), and for N.I. the Technical BookletsUnder the Northern Ireland Building Regulations, the Technical Booklets give construction principles, which, if you follow them guarantee compliance with the Regulations, (England) part A, deals with building structures of the Approved Documents in the Building Regulations (and see also the archived 1992 version which gives span tables for timber in floors, ceilings and roofs. These are not in the current version but are virtually unchanged)
- manufacture’s tables such as James Jones figures for their engineered timber ‘I’ joists
- calculations by a structural engineer
On 1st April 2010 the new CEN Eurocode standards for structural timber came into force in place of the old BSBritish Standard standard. These are –
- BS EN 1995-1-1 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. Part 1-1 General – Common rules and rules for buildings
- BS EN 1995-1-2 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures Part 1.2 General – Structural fire design
TRADATimber Research and Development Association A trade association with a strong reputation for research and publication on all things timber have published span tables in a new softback book called Eurocode 5 Span Tables: For Solid Timber Members in Floors, Ceilings and Roofs for Dwellings and various companies do online calculation software. However for practical purposes the self builder will still find the span tables in the old (archived) Approved Documents from 1992 to be useful in getting an idea of sizes for floor, ceiling and roof joists, binders, rafters and purlins. There is not a great deal of little difference between the old span tables and the new ones. The slight discrepancy is mainly in spans shorter that 2.4m.
The Building Regulations part A covers the structure of a building. This Approved Document goes into a lot of detail for traditional masonry buildings but almost none for timber frame, steel frame, earth building SIPsStructural Insulated Panels - prefabricated (usually in a factory) timber panels often forming part of an integrated building system and aimed at fast site erection. see more on SIPs etc. For these you will need to consult a structural engineer (while SIPs structures are usually handled by the manufacturer)
With most forms of construction there will be implications concerning fire safety. These are covered in the Building Regulations and you can see examples of how to conform with these in Part BThe Approved documents, (England) part B, deals with fire (Fire Safety)